Glossary

Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) is an unintended reaction to a drug taken at normal doses. In clinical trials, an ADR includes injuries by overdosing, abuse/dependence, and unintended interactions with other medicinal products.

Antibody also known immunoglobulin, is a protein produced by lymphoid tissue in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an antigen. Anti-Ro/SSA and Anti-La/SSB Antibodies are antibodies found in people with primary Sjogren's syndrome and other autoimmune diseases such as Lupus.

Antinuclear Antibody (ANA) is a blood test used to help evaluate a person for autoimmune disorders that affect many tissues and organs throughout the body.

Typical Sjogren's Syndrome ANA patterns are SSA/Ro and SSB/La.

Anti-SSB/La is far more specific; 

Anti-SSA/Ro is associated with many autoimmune conditions, but are often present in SS. However, Anti-SSA and Anti-SSB tests are frequently not positive in Sjogren's Syndrome.


anti-Ro/SSA and anti-La/SSB antigen-antibody are anti-nuclear autoantibodies that are associated with many autoimmune diseases including Sjogren's Syndrome.

Arthralgia means joint pain.

Atrophic gastritis (AG) develops when the lining of the stomach has been inflamed for several years. The inflammation is most often the result of a bacterial infection caused by the H. pylori bacterium... This is known as autoimmune atrophic gastritis. Healthline

Autoantibodies are antibodies (immune proteins) that mistakenly target and react with a person's own tissues or organs. One or more autoantibodies may be produced by a person's immune system when it fails to distinguish between "self" and "non-self." labtestsonline.org 

Autoantigen is a antigen that stimulates autoantibodies in the organism that produced it.

Autonomic neuropathy affects the autonomic nerves, which control the bladder, intestinal tract, and genitals, among other organs.

Autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is a chronic inflammation of the pancreas thought to be caused by the body's immune system attacking the pancreas. 

Blepharitis means inflammation of the eyelids

Bronchiectasis is a common lung disease characterised by chronic infection in small airways that results in some parts of the lung becoming damaged, allowing infected mucus to build up in pockets. Symptoms include a chronic cough with mucus production. Other symptoms include shortness of breathcoughing up blood, and chest pain. 

C4 levels is a simple blood test that measures the amount of complement C4 circulating in the bloodstream. A low level of C4 is associated with autoimmune diseases and collagen vascular diseases.

CNS = central nervous system 

CPGs = clinical practice guildelines.

Cranial neuropathy is nerve damage in the brain or brainstem. 

Cryoglobulinemia is part of a group of diseases that cause damage and inflammation of the blood vessels throughout the body (vasculitis).

Double-Blind study is a study where participants do not know which medication (or placebo) they are receiving.

Electromyography (EMG) measures muscle response or electrical activity in response to a nerve's stimulation of the muscle. The test is used to help detect neuromuscular abnormalities.

EpistaxisMedical term for nosebleed.

Esophageal dysmotility is when contractions in the esophagus become irregular, unsynchronized or absent. 

Esophageal web is a congenital or acquired thin membrane in the esophagus often causing dysphagia, usually in the lower half of the esophagus. 

Leukopenia is a reduction in the number of white cells in the blood.

Lymphopenia, or Lymphocytopenia, is when your lymphocyte count in your bloodstream is lower than normal.

Lymphadenopathy is a condition affecting the lymph glands resulting in lymph nodes that are abnormal in either size, feel or number.

Lymphoid tissue is the part of the body's immune system important for the immune response and helps protect it from infection and foreign bodies. Lymphoid tissue is present throughout the body and includes the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, adenoids, and other structures. MedicineNet

Malaise is a general feeling of discomfort, illness, or unease.

Meibomian glands, also called tarsal glands, are sebaceous glands at the rim of the eyelids.

Monoclonal Gammopathy is a condition in which an abnormal immunoglobin protein (known as a paraprotein) is found in the blood during standard laboratory blood tests.

Myalgia  is pain in a muscle or group of muscles.

Neurological = the science of the nerves and the nervous system.


NonTuberculous Mycobacteria (NTM) is a chronic lung disease
that can damage the lungs.


Otitis media
: Inflammation of the middle ear. 

Pathogenesis = the manner of development of a disease.


Paresthesia is an abnormal sensation such as tingling, pricking, numbness or burning of the skin with no physical cause. The most familiar kind of paresthesia is the sensation known as "pins and needles."


PN = peripheral neuropathy a nervous system condition 

caused by damage of the peripheral nerves. Symptoms are  numbness, pain, and weakness,usually in the hands and feet.


pSS = primary Sjögren syndrome.


Pulmonary fibrosis (PF) means scarring in the lungs and is a respiratory disease, which leads to serious breathing problems.


RF = rheumatoid factor.


Raynaud's syndrome, also known as Raynaud's phenomenon, is a medical condition in which spasms of arteries cause episodes of reduced blood flow. Typically the fingers and other parts of the body feel numb.


Salivary glands are called the parotid and submandibular glands and are located on both sides of the neck just below the ears and under the jaw. 

SGE salivary gland enlargement  

Scintigraphy is the salivary gland scan, also called parotid gland 

scintigraphy, is a non-invasive test. It is a nuclear medicine test that 

evaluates the function of the salivary gland. JOHN HOPKINS


T cell or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (white blood cell) that are  essential for human immunity. They are the defender cells that circulate around our bodies, scanning for cellular abnormalities. 

Thymus is a gland in the neck which produces T-lymphocytes for the immune system. 

Thrush: A form of candidiasis. Infection of the oral tissues with Candida albicans.

thyroiditis: A disease in which autoantibodies cause immune system cells (lymphocytes) to destroy the thyroid gland.

titer: Test showing the strength or concentration of a particular volume of a solution. Usually refers to amounts of antibody present.

TMJ (temporomandibular joint):
 The joint of the lower jaw where the ball-and socket arrangement is formed by the condyle of the lower jaw (the ball) and the fossa of the temporal bone (the socket). The joint space is filled with synovial or lubricating fluid. This joint and the surrounding synovial tissues may become inflamed if rheumatoid arthritis accompanies Sjögren’s syndrome and involves the joint.

trachea: Windpipe.

tracheobronchial tree: The windpipe and the bronchi into which it subdivides.

Vasculitis is inflammation of a blood vessel.

Venule is a very small vein.

Xerophthalmia is dry eyes.

Xerostomia is abnormal dryness of the mouth due to insufficient salivary secretions.

Xerotrachea is desiccation of the tracheobronchial tree, is one of the common causes of cough. The trachea, bronchi and bronchioles form the tracheobronchial tree a system of airways that allow passage of air into the lungs.