Trigeminal Neuralgia and Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia
are both neurological symptoms of Sjögren’s syndrome.

Sjögren’s syndrome can cause a numbness or burning of the face, called “trigeminal neuralgia.” 
Pain in the back of the throat, which may worsen while swallowing, is called “glossopharyngeal neuralgia.” 
Patients with trigeminal or glossopharyngeal neuralgia can have agonizing mouth and facial pain. 
These neuropathies may co-exist with other neuropathies in different parts of the body. For example, up to 20% of patients with a “small-fiber” neuropathy may also have trigeminal neuropathy.

Medicines which may help alleviate symptoms in small-fiber neuropathy may also have efficacy in trigeminal neuralgia. 
Such medications may include a class of agents which are typically used to treat seizures, and include gabapentin, topiramate, and pregabalin. 
In seizure disorders, paroxysmal and irregular bursts of electrical activity in brain nerves may lead to propagation of seizures. Similarly, in Sjögren’s neuropathy, irritative electrical signals produced by nerves in the skin instead of the brain, may similarly contribute to pain. Just as anti-seizure medicines can dampen electrical activity of brain cells, the dampening of electrical activity produced by pain-fibers may ameliorate burning pain. It is important to note that use of these symptomatic medications does not target the neuroinflammation which may be contributing to neuropathy. In such cases, judicious use of immunosuppressant medications should be considered. Johns Hopkins Sjögren’s Center

Trigeminal Neuropathy (V Cranial Nerve)

Trigeminal injury is the second more frequently described feature among cranial neuritis in SS patients; in fact, trigeminal neuropathy was observed in 102/267 (38%) cases, isolated or associated with other cranial nerve involvement.

Involvement of IX, X, XI, and XII Cranial Nerves

A few reports described SS patients who presented difficulty of swallowing, which is a symptom of glossopharyngeal neuropathy ; this nerve involvement was always reported in cases of multineuritis. All cases seem to be related to transient, often recurrent episodes of multineuritis, generally responsive to treatment. 

Neurologic Complications Associated with Sjögren's Disease

Trigeminal neuralgia (TGN) is characterised by sudden severe brief episodes of recurrent stabbing pain in the distribution of one or more branches of the fifth cranial nerve.  It is relatively rare and the majority of cases present unilaterally. 

Symptoms of TGN include jaw pain that may be aggravated by chewing, swallowing, talking, touch,or by consuming hot or cold food and drink. 

The pain can be triggered by shaving or wind blowing across the face. 

The severe paroxysms of pain are often described as ‘shooting’, ‘sharp’ or ‘electric’. 

An attack has rapid onset and lasts between 10 seconds and a couple of minutes, followed by a refractory period. 

The generally accepted common cause is compression of the Gasserian ganglion (sensory ganglion of the trigeminal nerve) or its branches by a blood vessel. 

The Royal Australian College of General Practitioners

Find out about other NEUROLOGICAL SYMPTOMS in SJOGREN'S SYNDROME (SS) The involvement of the nerves and nervous system.